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Data and Information - Differences and Uses

Date Added: December 25, 2007 03:38:14 PM
Category: Computers & Internet

Data are all the elements that serve as basis for the tabulation of opinions or decisions taking. Data are only one index, a register, an objective, plausible analysis manifestation, demanding personal interpretation for its manipulation. In itself, data have just a little value, but when classified, stored and related among itself, they allow essential attainment of information. Information presents meant and intentionality, aspects that differentiate it from data concept (NASCIMENTO, 2000).

Information is the worked data that the executive allows to take decisions. It is the result of the treatment of existing data concerning somebody or something information It can also be defined as a set of organized facts in such a way they acquire value beyond the fact’s value itself.

It can be said that information is the worked data that the manager allows to take decisions. Information would be the result of the analysis of the production capacity, sales cost of products, productivity of the employees etc. When being used by the managers, they can affect or modify the existing behavior in the company, as well as the relationship between some organizational units (CARVALHO, 1993).

Information to be valuable for the managers and decision takers, must have the following characteristics:

- Necessary - it does not have errors;
- Complete - it contains all the important facts;
- Economical - it must be of relatively economic production;
- Flexible - it can be used for diverse purposes;
- Trustworthy - it can be dependent;
- Excellent - it is important for the decision borrower;
- Simple - it cannot be exaggerated nor complex;
- In time - it is sent when necessary;
- Verifiable - it can be checked (CHESWICK, 2005).

Information basic intention is to qualify the company to reach its objectives for the efficient use of available resources and efficiency in the use of the resource of the information is measured by the relation of cost to get it and value of the benefit of its use.

We nominate data bases to the ways through which data is stored for posterior use, in which processing operation occurs (classification, storage and relationship) so that they can earn meant and thus being able to inform. An example of data base is the Serasa, that has the biggest economic-financial data base and information and registers in cadastre of Brazil.

The term data processing assigns activities that occur in the organizations, in social groups, as between people. A certain data volume of initial information exists, in the archives, expectations or memory, which continuously is added to other data or posterior information, greater volume of data, alterations modifications, provoking bigger volume of data, or information. Data processing is the activity that consists of accumulating, grouping and crossing given to transform them into information, to get other information, or the same information of another form, for some purpose or objective (COMER 2001).

Data processing can be:

- Manual: when effected manually, using itself of fiches, coupon stubs, cards, maps, etc with or without writing or calculate machines.

- Half-automatic: when it presents allied characteristics of manual and authomatic processing characteristics. That is, when they are used by accounting machines or microcomputers, in which the operator inserts fiches, coupon stubs or cards, one to one, what constitutes manual processing, and, after to receive the initial fiche and data, machines carries through numerous consecutive operations, already programmed, without the intervention of the operator, what constitutes the automatic processing.

- Automatic: when machines are programmed for some definitive complex set of operations and develops the sequence of total operations, without human intervention being between a cycle and the following ones. So, is the automatic processing of data and is made by computers or microcomputers (FERRARI, 1991).

NASCIMENTO, Juarez do. Telecomunicações. São Paulo: Makron Books – Monografias Prontas do Brasil, 2000.

CARVALHO. Tereza Cristina Melo de Brito.(org). Gerenciamento de Redes - uma abordagem de sistemas abertos. São Paulo - Brasília. BRISA - TELEBRÁS. Makron Books – Monografias Prontas. 1993

CHESWICK, W.; BELLOVIN, S. M. ; RUBIN. A. D.; Firewalls e Segurança na Internet. 2.ed. Porto Alegre. TCC Bokman. 2005

COMER, D. E., Redes de Computadores, Porto Alegre, 2001: TCC Bookman.

FERRARI, Antônio Martins. Telecomunicações: Evolução e Revolução. São Paulo: Érica Monografia, 1991.

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